As i wrote this paper, I was thinking  to write and find about IT role in education system as well as in the economic growth of countries.I found that i am finding credible  things about the subject.It is true that we have to find credible evidence about IT role in all the fields as well as in the economic growth of countries. So the study of credibility or epistemology and ontology gives a direction how we can find all the credible evidence about the things we want to research.This was very interesting and i must say is important in research area to give the best proof of what is real. I found that there is big difference in knowledge and Reality.

I find Research Method very useful  because now i am able to think logically about the things. Also i am able to find the reality or credible evidence for my research.I found a little hard in the starting but in the mean time i stay tuned.

Research method is good class in all my aspects.


Area Of Interest

I had wrote abut my area of interest about IT in  education.I find this area as per my interest.
Here i describe about education system interest in some answers of questions. I have studied about the role of  education system from google and my own experience.I have learned through google articles.Here are  many things I have to research and learn , to do my best i will find many aspects about education system.

I wrote about my personal interest in the answer of some questions :

Short description of area of IT that interests you (explain it to me!)

IT in education Field.Information technology is giving a new way to grow the education system.Because with the help of Techniques the institutes are making their way of providing knowledge to their students in an effective way.


Why is it interesting to you.

Because i want to know all about the Information technology how it is making difference in the society to do the work easy and effectively.


Three things you know about it

As i know about the IT that we use this in software development. Softwares are the devices which helps in solving the task.


Three things you believe about it

Education system will be very effective,With the help of IT students will do all practical work . Students will grow in their life with the help of Information Technology.


Three things you don’t know about it

As i am studying IT, i can say that i have to know more things in my learning hours.


Would you rather: Do something, Research it or Do both



Go and see if you can find an online resource about it – (post url) forum? facebook group? linkedin group? or a good blog?


  1. Identifying a possible project
    Construct 10 (interesting!) questions about your topic



Identify three good questions/ideas

What Is IT?

How IT comes in instance?

What is the Role of IT in the society?

Is IT  helping in every Field of Life?

What is the Importance of IT in Education System?

Is IT helps in research?

Who found IT?

How IT works?

Where did IT First Implemented?

 What will the future of IT?

The Literature Review

What is the title and what does the title tell you about the paper? Who is the paper written by and do they seem credible to you?

Since the main aim of the research topic is to tell about the use of Information and Communication Technology in the economic growth and benefits of ICT. The most trustworthy finding related to the research topic would be the study conducted by Maryam Farhadi, and some other studies mentioned in the paper, which are totally reasonable. It is officially available online and discussion about the economic growth benefits.
According to Maryam Farhadi Information and communication Technology is the major part of economy now-a-days. All the organisations are using computers and Internet connections for their economic purposes like improving product quality, providing customers best service and selling their goods and services. ICT’s influence is increasing day by day in both the developed and developing countries. Information and communication Technology use indicators portray. ICT is known as the key factor of economic growth in all organisations mostly in industrial society, also this is the current symbol of technological revolution. The substantial growth in mobile cellular subscription is noticeable. ICT defines the concept that include computers and other information equipment that covers computers, computer software, communication equipment etc. Investment on Information and communication Technology includes the investment on the computer and telecomm -unication including hardware, software requirement and services.

Does it have a helpful abstract? Give reasons for your answer.

In this paper helpful abstract is given by the author. In the paper author defines the relationship between ICT use and GDP growth rate per person in 159 countries is examined. But still the study on the impaction of ICT use in economic growth is an unexplored operation. Author used the ICT investment components such as computer hardware, software and labor as input to verify the economic growth to see the effect of information and communication technology but they were not able to find any evidence of a positive relationship before the mid of 1990s. Other people, Jorgenson and Stiroh show the evidence of contribution of Information Technology in economic growth of the United State.

Other studies, most of them are reviewed by Pohjola, indicate that use of ICT is the most important factors in economic growth of US in 1990s.They also provide the evidence of economic growth boosts in Finland from 0.3% to 0.7% in the year 1990 because of ICT. After a great success of ICT in developed countries, the impact of ICT contribution to economic growth is still scarce in developing countries. All discussion about the ICT use in developing countries came to an end that the developing countries may gain the benefit from the ICT if they switch from the predominant technology to new “ICT-oriented approach”.

What did the author(s) do in their research, what research approach and what method(s) did they use?

All the evidence of ICT impact on economic growth given in the paper are divided into two categories based on the methodology. First studies employing the growth accounting technique, which emphasis the growth in inputs by their share and express the part of information and communication technology to economic growth in percentage point. These studies compare the Jorgenson and Stiroh, Oliner and Sichel for the US; Jalava and Pohjola for Finland. These evidences are at the national level on the other hand there are some other studies at the firm or industry level. The second category of researches that used cross country regression techniques to find ICT impact on economic growth. Madden and Savage used 27 Central and Eastern European country’s samples which showed the positive impact of ICT. Many more studies since 1990s showed the positive impact Of ICT on economic growth even some studies said that there is a casual link among broadband Infrastructure as a driving factor of ICT. Now ICT is known as a driving engine of economic growth. However, the empirical results of earlier studies are somewhat weak, and some depends on data period specifications. The effective impact of ICT as a production input on economic growth is positive. Positive results gave very credible evidence about the impact of Information and communication Technology use in economic growth. Different studies clearly displayed that how ICT helped in the growth of economy in various countries all over the worlds.

Do you think the method(s) they used to be appropriate to the question they were asking? Explain why or why not.

Taken review on all the methods that authors used to measure the Economic growth using ICT, I think they are strongly appropriate to the questions they were asking. Because they also used mathematical approach to find the answer for their questions. They find some issues in their results, but economist suggest the use of instrumental variables. As GMM method firstly used by Holtz-Eakin looks to be appropriate for the solution of mathematical equations, which addressed the problem of autocorrelation of the leftover things. This paper calculates the ICT use index by applying the Principal Component Analysis.

What results does the paper report?

This paper reported the result based on GMM-dynamic panel date. Result in this paper confirms the relationship between the GDP per person and information and communication technology use index. Author reported the result that if the more country use the ICT then economic growth will be greater.  ICT’s coefficient uses positive index. If the use index of ICT coefficient is 0.17%, then it indicates that if a country enhances the ICT index by 1%, the economic growth will increase 0.17%. The information given by the ITU and other international organizations shows an increasing trend of ICT use indicators in most of these countries, it defines that these countries identifying the importance of ICT on their economic growth. They also demonstrate the hypothesis of this paper that ICT use has a powerful growth generating effect. The indication of the first trail of ICT use index and GDP per person coefficient are positive and well significant that implies the positive effect of these variables on economic growth. Moreover, the second, third and fourth trail of ICT and GDP are negative and mostly insignificant.

Was the paper worth reading? Give reasons for your answer.

This paper is worth reading. Because as I read about the technology, its importance that how technology is enhancing the economic growth now-a-days in developed and in developing countries also. After reading this paper I find that Information and communication technology changed the face of economy in various countries all over the world. Economic growth increased with the help of ICT. This paper has many evidence to show proof of the result which describes the role of information and communication technology in economic growth of any country. Even the author suggests the idea for the developing countries to improve their economy by using ICT. Author shows the methods, mathematical equations to measure the economic growth of the countries which are using information and communication technology to improve their economic growth. Author show some of the estimated results in the form of table in the paper to give their results proof. Some data examples are introduced in the paper to tell how the economic growth improved in recent years with the help of ICT methods. Reading this paper is pretty worth for me as I stated that it is showing many evidence of results in the form of tables, data, statistics, figures and methods to measure the economic growth of the countries which are taking help of information and communication Technology.

Do you believe the results/findings or the paper? Give reasons for your answer.

I believe in the findings/results, in the paper. I personally believe that the results provided by the author in the paper and the data related to the Information and communication Technology is somehow correct. I believe in the paper because of the different studies described in the paper to calculate the economic growth by ICT use index. These studies are showing different statistics to display the difference in economic growth in previous years. They provided the big difference in between yearly time Economic growth and the growth which is increased after using information and communication technology.

What did you learn from reading the paper?

I learnt from this paper that if we want to develop our economic growth fast, we must use some good technologies like ICT. In this paper I learnt that in the development of countries economy there is a big role of ICT since past years. ICT is the big factor of developed countries in the field of economic growth using some useful methods like GMM and by applying some good principals such as PCA. The main point I remember that we can easily solve some problems by applying some mathematical equations.

Class Work

What interests me about IT and what doesn’t.

I get interest in IT in networks and research work.

The IT area/subject I have most enjoyed is ….

In IT i mostly enjoyed multimedia applications.

The IT area/subject I least enjoyed is…..

I least enjoyed programming subjects

The IT area/subject I was most interested in is……

In Research work and networking.

The one IT thing I never want to have to do again is…………..

Same the Programming subject JAVA

I chose to study IT because I  …….

Because of to work on Computers to learn about IT.

If I couldn’t study IT I would study………..

Management Program

When I was a kid I wanted to be…………..


One IT thing I would like to know more about is   ……..

Research Methods and Network

Weekly Blog 18 September

    1. Did the abstract tell you the three things I said it should? If not, what did it tell you?
      In this paper the main focus is on the educational System.Yes, the abstract tells the three things that are ,the title name is in the abstract, the author  work is defined that he explained the role of information technology and also the conclusion is given that how the society enters in the field of information technology. 
    2. What seems to be the research question(s) they were trying to answer ?
      Research questions are all about how the IT improving the education system.Here,the author is trying to answer about the IT role.He compare early time education system and now these day,He find some difference but he find the same organisation of class rooms as it was in early time.
    3. What  methods did they use to answer the question(s)?
      The author used simple language to answer but he took examples of many things to define what is IT,role of It,how IT is important.He also defined that how It improve the life of society.
    4. How credible do you think the paper is?
      Paper is strongly credible it is so because the authors are professor in the recognized  universities.Also the published year is given in the paper.Keywords are also given the paper which the authors used.
    5. Did you agree, or not, with what they wrote in their conclusion? Why?
      I agree with the authors which the wrote in their conclusion. Because they said about the IT , how it is making  the education field so easy,modern.They said that to get the work simple and fast IT is palying very powerful role in every field. 
    6. Briefly describe two things that you learnt from the paper.
      First thing i learn about the Information Technology.I get the knowledge about Information technology how this made the society to do their work easily and in less time.
      Second ,the main thing i learn about the education system.Author describe how education system is moderating with the Information Technology.Educational institutes are using Information Technology increasing their efficiency of performing best. Using Information Technology education system  establishing cooperation and coordination between various parts in the field of using the aforementioned tools.
    7. In no more than 250 of your own words (i.e. a paraphrase), describe what the paper is about .
      This paper is all about the information Technology. This paper is describing the what is the information technology.In this paper authors compares the early time education system and today’s. This paper told about the Information technology how IT changed the structure of the education system. How the education system is modernized using information Technology.
      Author describe about the importance of the Information Technology in the education field. Information Technology changed the face of the educational institutes to improve their efficiency. IT is making education system easy and effective result oriented.

Finding Academic Paper


5. Article 1:

  • Title—Organizational Factors that Influence IT diffusion in Academic Health Sciences Centers .
  • Author(s) of the articleJoan Ash
  • APA referenceAnderson JG Aydin CE Jay SJ.
    Evaluating Health Care Information Systems: Methods and Applications.
    Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1994;289.

  • How you found the article and what keywords you used–I Search on google scholar with the keywords  Academic Paper in IT.

  • What kind of article it isJournal.

  • All the reasons that you think it is an academic article–clear Abstract is given for the paper.It contains all the references,published date. It is published by a University.Author is also working in an university.

  • How well it fits the ‘structure of an academic article’  that I described in my previous post–It fits strongly well in the  structure of an academic article.

  • How many references it has–37

  • How many citations it has -No

  •  The url of the articlehttps://academic.oup.com/jamia/article/4/2/102/730892

  • Say whether you are interested in properly reading the article or not (and give some reasons!)–Yes i am interested to read it because i want to research in Education field.



Article 2:


  • Title —-Information Technology In Education
  • Author of the article— Farideh Hamidi , Maryam Meshkat, MaryamRezaee , MehdiJafari
  • APA reference—-R.C. Mishra, Management of educational research, India: kul bhushan nangia(APH Publishing corporation).2005.
  • How you found the article —Google Search
  • what keywords you used—-Information Technology in Education
  • What kind of article it is—Academic paper
  • all the reasons that you think it is an academic article— Containing Abstract,references,keywords. Author’s name,publication date. Also it is published by a recognized university.
  • how well it fits the ‘structure of an academic article’  that I described in my previous post–Strongly
  • how many references it has–22
  • how many citations it has (if you can find out)–No
  • for articles that you found online,  the url of the article—-https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050910004370
  • say whether you are interested in properly reading the article or not (and give some reasons!)— Yes , I am interested to know about how IT is performing to make education system more and more interesting.









2. Check the articles that you found last week

(i) http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1881/3717.short

This is an academic article because this article is too long upto 4000-5000 words.it is  individually published work by academics.There are many references available form google scholar.This article is  really useful on the basis of my research by looking at some of the criteria. This article also have abstract,publisher name,published date etc.

(ii) https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/372409/

This is an academic paper .It contains 11 pages for the information with abstract. It this published by the member of universties of UK. Their are three person who did the work in this.They also give multiple reference for their work.Published date,Published name and Keywords are clearly mentioned in this paper.

(iii) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YaGqOPxHFkc

Here only the definition of my research keyword is given. Its not an acadmic article not paper. Here the information is given ny the person who work on it.This is the individual work to publish this information.Published date is given but there abstract is not available  and no any reference.




Evidence for Computational Thinking & Virtualisation Technology

Computational Thinking

Source 1:

  •  The URL—http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/366/1881/3717.short
  • Search terms  used—evidence of computational thinking
  • How you found it–Google search engine
  • Who wrote/created it—Jeannette M Wing
  • When it was written/created/recorded/published —.
  • What kind of ‘publication’ it is—-Scholar Article
  • How  ‘credible (believable)’  you think it is  – for sure CT is credible because abstraction is followed everywhere to do work. while it is a work related to our lives.Computational thinking use abstractions to perform good in every step.SO, Computational thinking is fully believable.


Source 2:

  •  The URL—https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/372409/
  • Search terms  used—computational thinking evidence
  • How you found it–google search
  • Who wrote/created it—Cynthia Selby, Mark Dorling,John Woollard
  • When it was written/created/recorded/published —
  • What kind of ‘publication’ it is—-Monograph(working paper)
  • How  ‘credible (believable)’  you think it is  – I will say that this paper is a little  credible ,because this is a working paper. it was last modify on 16th july 2018.But it is done by more than two persons so sometimes it is credible.


Source 3:

  •  The URL—https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V9Xy18YEK9M
  • Search terms  used—Computational Thinking
  • How you found it–YouTube
  • Who wrote/created it—Jeannette M.Wing
  • When it was written/created/recorded/published —
  • What kind of ‘publication’ it is—- youtube video
  • How  ‘credible (believable)’  you think it is  –This video is uploaded by Microsoft research. I strictly agree with this video,i think this video is enough credible. This video is uploaded by Microsoft research.





Source 1:

  •  The URL—https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YaGqOPxHFkc
  • Search terms  used—Virualisation technology
  • How you found it-google Search engine
  • Who wrote/created it—CMargaret Rouse and Brian Kirsch
  • When it was written/created/recorded/published —
  • What kind of ‘publication’ it is—-educational document
  • How  ‘credible (believable)’  you think it is—This is an educational document   so i can say that this is believable in the terms of evidence. Some of  good  terms are used here.

Source 2:

  •  The URL–https://youtu.be/kuXVJH9lDQo
  • Search terms  used—virtualisation technology
  • How you found it-link from the document
  • Who wrote/created it—MultiTrends IT Net
  • When it was written/created/recorded/published —
  • What kind of ‘publication’ it is—-youtube educational video
  • How  ‘credible (believable)’  you think it is— this is credible evidence because this is published by an educatonal institute.They are telling about virtualisation with the help of animated diagrams.


Favorite Blog

My favorite blog is :


He explain “TRUTH” in quite good way.He defines the truth as a “TRUST” .It matters if we are believing on someone its mean s\he is telling the truth. Dean also gives all the answers in very explanatory way.
He explain all things in very simple way to make others understand.I am impressed with an image which he put in his blog, i feels like this image is saying everything by its own.

Its good way to define our topics with the images.

Ontology and Epistemology

Ontology and Epistemology are the two different terms but they both are depends on each other.Ontology is depends on the epistemology in some facts.

  1. What is ontology? How is it relevant to research?ONTOLOGY is the term which defines reality, means it shows that the thing exist in our surroundings  is real.Ontology is the study of ‘being’.It is  the knowledge of being real.

    In terms of research , Ontology is relevant in research because without prior knowledge we cab not do state anything real.To get the knowledge about  any fact that is real we must first have to take the review of that.So, ontology is relevant in research.


  2. What is epistemology? How is it relevant to research?
    We have the knowledge of the thing which is prior validate, it says Epistemology. Epistemology is gaining knowledge through reasoning. This knowledge is justified and and opinion based.Epistemology is very much relevant in research because it is the way to prove the things around us is real. It is the basic method in science to know about the validation of the things which is true.
    Epistemology in research provides the information about the true things which are in existence.


  3. What is the connection between ontology and epistemology in a research context?Connection between Ontology and epistemology is of “Reality”,having knowledge of real and other is how the thing is real. Ontology and Epistemology are interconnected to define the reality, rather it is by  knowing or by knowledge.


DBR is basically educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments, DBR is an important methodology for understanding how, when, and why educational innovations work in practice.

a systematic but flexible methodology aimed to improve educational practices through iterative analysis, design, development, and implementation, based on collaboration among researchers and practitioners in real-world settings, and leading to contextually-sensitive design principles and theories.

esign-based research is pragmatic because its goals are solving current real-world problems by designing and enacting interventions as well as extending theories and refining design principles



  1. What is it?
    Its research into how any educational learning is taught to then experiment with ways of improving the educational methods. DBR is also called  as Design-Science Research.

2. What kinds of questions/problems might it be useful for?

It might be useful for education. A tutor can ask how to make his/her lesson/class          better.


3. How could it be used in IT research?

Re-design a framework, instructions, tutorials, lessons plans, etc.
During System Development Life Cycles, in the information gathering and analysis phases and over the various iterations such as maintenance, testing. 

4.What are the strengths of the approach?

DBR is Pragmatic because its emphasis is solving Real world problems.